I. CATALOG DESCRIPTION:
ET262 Operational Amplifiers C 3, P 2, CR 4
This course includes further study of linear transistor circuits. Examination of frequency response and negative feedback are of prime importance. Operational amplifiers are discussed in great depth, including applications in summing, precision rectifying, voltage regulation, filtering, and other popular circuit applications. Usage of digital computers for analysis and design is discussed.
Prerequisites: ET161 Linear Electronics or permission of instructor.
Supplementary Text: Electronic Principles 7E, Malvino, McGraw Hill Publishing
Tools: Scientific calculator, electronic hand tools and breadboard
III. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES:
The student will demonstrate knowledge of analog electrical devices, particularly operational amplifiers and their applications.
The student will be able to utilize items such as decibels, Bode plots, and negative feedback for circuit analysis.
The student will use a mathematical and problem solving approach for design and analysis, based on fundamental DC and AC circuit principles and math concepts. This will include the use of computer simulations.
The student will demonstrate facility at constructing and trouble shooting op amp circuits in the laboratory with proper use of test equipment.
The student will demonstrate appropriate communication skills, particularly technical reports through the laboratory.
The student will demonstrate the ability to work as part of a technical team, particularly in the laboratory.
Success in this course requires a good working knowledge of the theorems presented in ET 151 Circuits 1, and the amplifier concepts covered in ET 161 Linear Electronics. Math level is mostly algebra, although some equation proofs do require differential and/or integral calculus. Only one chapter (10) requires the use of calculus for day-to-day problem solutions. For lab, you'll need the standard array of goodies as used in ET151 Circuits 1 and ET161 Linear Electronics (breadboard, DMM, small handtools, hook-up leads, etc.) Unless otherwise specified, all lab exercises require a non-formal report due no later than one week after the exercise. Late penalty is one letter grade for the first half week, two letter grades for the second half week. Reports are not accepted beyond two weeks and receive a grade of 0. Remember, plagiarism is grounds for failure.
Link to on-line companion site (for Multisim files of the text's examples)
Free on-line resources covering a variety of electrical circuit topics and reference material may be found at: www.allaboutcircuits.com and www.talkingelectronics.com, in particular, check out this extensive free e-book that covers everything from basic semiconductor theory through diodes, transistors, amplifiers, modulation, power electronics and digital electronics, in nearly 800 pages. Here are some free e-books from manufacturers: TI's Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications, Analog Devices' Op Amp Applications Handbook and Analog Devices' Linear Circuit Design Handbook. The Analog Devices series of On-line Tutorials is also useful. A handy chart of various op amp circuit configurations can be found here. See the home page for free circuit simulators.
Week-by-week progress and assignments
We begin with an introduction to decibels and Bode plots, something we're going to be using for the rest of the semester.
This week we complete our study of Bode plots and introduce the differential amplifier. Differential amplifiers comprise the first stage of most op amps.
We finish diff amps and delve into the inner workings of a typical op amp.
The concept of negative feedback is introduced. This is a very important topic. There are four basic forms or connections, and we will focus our attention on the two most popular types (series-parallel and parallel-parallel).
This week we examine some basic op amp circuits including summing amplifiers, single-supply biasing, and current-boosting. Once we finish this section, we'll have our first test.
Up to now, the op amp has been treated as a fairly ideal device. We now spend some time looking at the practical limitations of op amp circuits including frequency response, slew rate, offsets, drift, and noise.
We continue with the practical limits of op circuits.
This week we look at a collection of special purpose op amps including those designed for high power, high current, and high voltage applications, as well as high speed video op amps, OTAs, and Norton amplifiers. This section tends to move rather quickly, and by week's end we'll be looking at non-linear applications such as precision rectifiers.
We continue with non-linear applications including function approximators. Function approximators (AKA function generators or synthesizers) can be used to correct for transducer non-linearity or to force a waveform into a new shape (such as turning a triangle wave into a sine wave). When this section is completed, we'll have a test.
Voltage regulation is an extremely useful function, so there should be no surprise at the wide range of regulators on the market. We begin with some simple linear regulators and work up to switching regulators.
After finishing off regulation, we pick up with oscillators and frequency generators.
Now we begin something particularly interesting: getting op amps to integrate and differentiate signals. This can be very useful. For example, such circuits allow you to generate velocity information from an accelerometer. Time to brush up on a little calculus! After this, it will be time for a test (perhaps early next week).
We begin the study of active filters. We will look at several popular forms and applications. This will be more of an overview since a thorough examination of the topic could easily take an entire semester.
We complete our look at active filters and begin a discussion of analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion.
A/D and D/A conversion and applications are finished this week. If time permits, we'll have our last test.
Text, OER: Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits/3E (pdf)
Text, OER: Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits/3E (odt)
Lab Manual, OER: Lab Manual for Operational Amplifiers & Linear Integrated Circuits/3E (pdf)
Lab Manual, OER: Lab Manual for Operational Amplifiers & Linear Integrated Circuits/3E (doc)
3 Cycle Semi-Log Paper (pdf)
Op Amp Practice 1 Worksheet
Op Amp Practice 2 Worksheet
Op Amp Practice 3 Worksheet
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